Philosophical Studies of Sport
Philosophical studies of sport have been divided into two types: descriptive and normative. Descriptive theories attempt to describe sport and its central concepts. Normative theories, on the other hand, attempt to define the nature of the sport and how it should be practiced. Both types can be classified as externalist and internalist, with the latter being heavily influenced by structuralism and Marxism. William J. Morgan, for example, identifies three types of externalist theories: Commodification theory (understands sport as a commodity with exchange value) and social contract theory. Both theories attempt to understand sport’s nature and function as a social process.
The definition of sport depends on its origin and the level of organisation that surrounds it. Sports are generally organised and competitive, but the level of organisation affects the classification. In Europe, there are various associations and federations that oversee international sporting events. For example, the Council of Europe includes all forms of physical exercise that are not strictly competitive. However, this does not mean that all sports are organized and sanctioned by governments. As a result, sports are not just defined by governing bodies and categorized according to the rules of each sport.
Sports help in building personality and character. By playing sports, individuals develop positive attitudes and develop analytical skills. Taking up sports also reduces stress and enhances efficiency. In addition, sports develop five essential components of fitness: strength, speed, agility, balance, and flexibility. And as an added bonus, sports help us develop good values and ethical standards. In addition, they teach us to handle challenging situations and make quick decisions. Sports also teach us to take responsibility.
The definition of a sport is often contentious. Despite its broad definition, there are many activities that fit the definition. Cheerleading, golf, and fishing are all considered pastimes, but are also sports. Any activity in which a person competes can be a sport as long as it involves structured competition. In addition, sports encourage children to be social and develop self-esteem. You should also be careful when defining the sport.
Human communities have been involved in sports for centuries. Many ancient cultures have been influenced by sport and use it to entertain themselves, practice religion, or even maintain political stability. As early as 2000 BC, the Chinese, Romans, and Greeks practiced sport as a means to achieve their goals. Ancient Greeks and Romans used sport to train warriors. In fact, they portrayed hunters chasing prey with a sense of joy. Moreover, ancient civilizations viewed hunting as a purpose and not just a means to survive.
The definition of art is more complex than simply defining its objective. It can be divided into two types: the subjective and the social. The former aims to define the meaning of the sport, whereas the latter aims to identify its distinctive purposes and values. While they acknowledge the social and psychological influences of sport, internalist theories aim to define its normative principles. It is also important to understand the role of the social and political context in sports, which is a vital part of determining how it is regarded.